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關于18年中央和地方預算執行情況與19年中央和地方預算草案的報告(4)(中英對照)

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People's lives continued to improve. Implementing a more proactive employment policy

社會民生持續改善。實施更加積極的就業政策。
We implemented policies on subsidies for employment and business start-ups, and strengthened capacity building for providing better public employment services. The central budget's employment subsidies totaled 46.878 billion yuan, a rise of 6.8%; a total of 13.61 million new urban jobs were created over the year.
落實就業創業補貼政策,加強公共就業服務能力建設,中央財政就業補助資金支出468.78億元,增長6.8%,全年城鎮新增就業1361萬人。
Promoting reform and development in education
推動教育改革發展。
A total of 84.4% of the central budget's transfer payments for education went to the central and western regions, and were weighted especially toward poor areas. This has resulted in exemption of all tuition and miscellaneous fees and free textbooks for around 145 million students in compulsory education around the country, living allowances for 13.92 million boarding students from financially disadvantaged families, 14 million children living with migrant worker parents in cities being able to have their fiscal outlays for education transferred along with them, and 37 million students receiving subsidies for nutritious meals. Funding support was also provided for the development of preschool education, regular senior high schools, vocational education, and higher education.
中央財政教育轉移支付的84.4%投向中西部地區,并向貧困地區傾斜。全國約1.45億義務教育學生免除學雜費并獲得免費教科書,1392萬家庭經濟困難寄宿生獲得生活費補助,1400萬進城務工農民工隨遷子女實現相關教育經費可攜帶,3700萬學生享受營養膳食補助。支持學前教育、普通高中、職業教育、高等教育發展。
Ensuring the basic wellbeing of the people
加強基本民生保障。
Basic pension payments for retirees of enterprises, Party and government offices, and public institutions were raised by around 5%. The minimum basic pension benefits for rural and non-working urban residents under the basic aged-care insurance scheme were raised to 88 yuan per person per month, and mechanisms were established to set standards on and regularly adjust basic aged-care insurance benefits. Work was carried out to transfer a portion of state capital to top up social security funds; this work was basically completed on a trial basis in five central government enterprises and in Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces, and is ongoing in 19 central government enterprises. This has promoted the establishment of an operating mechanism for combining transferring a portion of state capital with efforts to gradually make up for shortfalls in enterprise employees' basic aged-care pension funds. The government subsidy for basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents was raised to 490 yuan per person per annum, with half of the 40-yuan increase being allocated to the serious disease insurance scheme. Annual per person government subsidies for basic public health services were raised to 55 yuan.
機關事業單位和企業退休人員基本養老金標準提高約5%。城鄉居民基本養老保險基礎養老金最低標準提高至88元,并建立了基本養老保險待遇確定和基礎養老金正常調整機制。劃轉部分國有資本充實社保基金,5戶中央企業和浙江、云南兩省的劃轉試點工作基本完成,19戶中央企業的劃轉工作正在推進中,推動建立國有資本劃轉和企業職工基本養老保險基金缺口逐步彌補相結合的運行機制。城鄉居民醫保財政補助標準提高到每人每年490元,增加的40元中一半用于加強大病保險保障能力。基本公共衛生服務經費人均財政補助標準達到55元。
We supported the provision of subsistence allowances and of assistance and aid to people living in extreme poverty or facing financial difficulties. Subsidies and living allowances were increased for entitled groups, benefiting over 8.6 million people around the country. We continued to provide support for the rebuilding of housing in run-down urban areas and for the development of supporting infrastructure for public rental housing, funding the rebuilding of 6.26 million housing units in run-down urban areas and 1.9 million dilapidated rural houses. We deepened our efforts to bring cultural benefits to the people, subsidizing over 50,000 public cultural facilities to keep them free and open to the public.
支持做好最低生活保障、特困人員救助供養等困難群眾救助工作。提高優撫對象等人員撫恤和生活補助標準,惠及全國860余萬優撫對象。繼續支持各類棚戶區改造、公租房配套基礎設施建設等,全年棚戶區改造開工626萬套、農村危房改造190萬戶。深入實施文化惠民工程,支持5萬余所公共文化設施免費開放。
We intensified fiscal and tax reforms. Accelerating reform of the fiscal system
財稅改革向縱深推進。加快財政體制改革。
We released reform plans on defining the respective fiscal powers and expenditure responsibilities of central and local governments for basic public services and for the medical and healthcare sector. Looking forward, we are actively advancing these reforms in fields like education, science and technology, and transportation.
出臺基本公共服務領域中央與地方共同財政事權和支出責任劃分改革方案,以及醫療衛生領域財政事權和支出責任劃分改革方案。教育、科技、交通運輸等領域財政事權和支出責任劃分改革正在積極推進。
Deepening reform of the budget management system
深化預算管理制度改革。
We implemented the CPC Central Committee and the State Council's Guidelines on Implementing Comprehensive Performance-Based Budget Management, and established an initial management system of this kind for project outlays of the central budget, covering the whole budget process from performance targets to execution oversight and performance self-evaluation for all central government projects and special transfer payments to local governments. We also put in place a mechanism to ensure the regular performance evaluation of key budgets, and during 2018 organized performance evaluations by third-party organizations on 38 key policies regarding public wellbeing and major projects, involving a total of 551.3 billion yuan; the evaluation results have been used to improve management, budget arrangement, and relevant polices. Central government budgets and final accounts were released in more detail, and further progress has been made in advancing the disclosure of budgets and final accounts of local governments andtheir departments at the provincial, city, and county levels. The trial preparation of government financial statements was expanded.
深入貫徹落實《中共中央 國務院關于全面實施預算績效管理的意見》,在中央財政層面初步建立了項目支出為主的全過程預算績效管理體系,中央本級項目和對地方專項轉移支付績效目標、運行監控和績效自評實現全覆蓋,建立重點績效評價常態化機制,2018年組織第三方機構對38個重點民生政策和重大項目開展重點績效評價,涉及資金5513億元,評價結果已經用于改進管理、預算安排和完善政策。中央預算決算公開內容更加細化,省市縣級政府和部門預算決算公開深入推進。政府財務報告編制試點范圍進一步擴大。
Improving the tax system
完善稅收制度。
Amid tax and fee cuts, we took initial steps to establish an individual income tax system based on both adjusted gross income and specific types of income, and reformed and improved the VAT system. We pressed for tax legislation, for the smooth implementation of the Environmental Protection Tax Law, Vessel Tonnage Tax Law, and Tobacco Leaf Tax Law, for the deliberation and adoption by the NPC Standing Committee of the Tax Law on Farmland Used for Non-agricultural Purposes and the Vehicle Purchase Tax Law, and for the submission as per procedure of the Resource Tax Law to the NPC Standing Committee for its first reading.
結合減稅降費,初步建立綜合與分類相結合的個人所得稅制,改革完善增值稅制度。加快稅收立法進程,環境保護稅法、船舶噸稅法、煙葉稅法順利實施,耕地占用稅法、車輛購置稅法經全國人大常委會審議通過,資源稅法按程序提請全國人大常委會初次審議。
Deepening the reform of state capital and SOEs
深化國資國企改革。
For the first time, we presented to the NPC Standing Committee a comprehensive report on the management of all state-owned assets and a specific report on state-owned assets in financial enterprises. We drove forward the issuance of guidelines on piloting reforms in state capital investment and management companies, on piloting unified oversight and supervision over state-owned productive assets of central Party and government offices and public institutions, and on improving the management of state-owned financial capital, and we made steady and solid progress in ensuring their implementation. We made major progress in relieving SOEs of their obligations to operate social programs and in resolving their other longstanding issues.
首次向全國人大常委會作了全口徑國有資產管理情況綜合報告和金融企業國有資產專項報告。推動出臺國有資本投資、運營公司改革試點的實施意見,推進中央黨政機關和事業單位經營性國有資產集中統一監管試點的實施意見,以及完善國有金融資本管理的指導意見,扎實有序落實相關重點工作。剝離國有企業辦社會職能和解決歷史遺留問題取得重要進展。
We continued to improve fiscal management. Strengthening basic work on fiscal management
財政管理水平繼續提高。強化管理基礎工作。
Through a combination of measures, we accelerated the pace of budget execution, and improved the preparation and allocation of funds for transfer payments to local governments. In addition to this, we supported local governments in their efforts to ensure payment of salaries, normal operations, and the basic wellbeing of the people, to ensure that rural migrant workers get paid, and to clear up overdue payments to private enterprises. Work on conducting dynamic monitoring of budget execution was accelerated, and mechanisms for the dynamic monitoring of budget execution were established in 36 provincial-level budget institutions and in most city- and county-level governments. We built an online platform to enable online reimbursement of official travel expenses. We strengthened control over suspense payments of local governments, and basically completed the work of reviewing and overhauling local governments' special accounts. A basic system of governmental accounting principles and institutions was established, and internal control standards and systems for administrative agencies and public institutions were improved.
多措并舉加快預算執行進度,完善對地方轉移支付資金調度,支持地方做好保工資、保運轉、保基本民生,以及農民工工資支付、清理拖欠民營企業賬款等工作。加快推進預算執行動態監控工作,36個省本級、絕大多數市縣都已建立預算執行動態監控機制。構建網上報銷公務平臺,實現公務人員出差報銷全流程電子化管理。加強地方暫付款管理。清理整頓地方財政專戶工作基本完成。政府會計準則制度體系基本建成,行政事業單位內部控制規范體系進一步健全。
Tightening up financial discipline
嚴肅財經紀律。
We stepped up oversight and compliance checks around the implementation of major fiscal and tax policies, and inspected local governments' debt management, their financial support for poverty alleviation, their use of funds for pollution prevention and control, and their implementation of preferential tax policies for economic development zones. We strengthened oversight of governmental accounting and government procurement agencies and strictly dealt with violations of laws and regulations.
圍繞落實重大財稅政策加大財政監督檢查力度,對地方政府債務管理、財政支持脫貧攻堅、污染防治資金使用、經濟開發區稅收優惠政策執行等情況進行核查檢查。加強會計、政府采購代理機構監管,嚴肅處理違法違規行為。
Conscientiously rectifying problems uncovered in auditing
認真整改審計發現問題。
We put strong emphasis on rectifying problems discovered through the auditing process such as the proportion of transfer payments for specific purposes being too high and the coverage of performance-based budget evaluation being too narrow, determined responsibility for correction, produced detailed rectification measures, and made steady progress in resolving the issues. At the same time, we earnestly studied and adopted suggestions from auditing bodies and, with a focus on applying lessons learned from experience, established institutions and mechanisms for solid corrective results.
高度重視審計指出的具有指定用途的轉移支付占比較高、預算績效評價覆蓋面小等問題,落實整改責任,細化整改措施,扎實推進整改,同時認真研究采納審計建議,注重舉一反三,從體制機制上鞏固整改成果。
Overall, budget execution in 2018 was satisfactory and we achieved new outcomes in the reform and development of public finance, which gave strong impetus to sustained and healthy economic and social development. We owe these achievements to the firm leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core; to the sound guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; to the oversight of the NPC and the CPPCC National Committee together with their deputies and members; and to the concerted efforts of all regions, all departments, and the people of all our nation's ethnic groups.
總的看,2018年預算執行情況較好,財政改革發展工作取得新進展,有力促進了經濟社會持續健康發展。這是以習近平同志為核心的黨中央堅強領導的結果,是習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想科學指引的結果,是全國人大、全國政協及代表委員們監督指導的結果,是各地區、各部門以及全國各族人民共同努力的結果。
At the same time, we have yet to overcome the following main problems and challenges in budget execution and public finance work:
同時,預算執行和財政工作中還面臨一些問題和挑戰。主要是:
The foundation for revenue growth is fragile, while expenditures remain inflexible; some city- and county-level governments face serious budgetary constraints in ensuring payment of salaries, normal operations, and the basic wellbeing of people in their jurisdictions.
財政收入增長基礎不穩,支出剛性不減,一些市縣保工資、保運轉、保基本民生支出壓力大。
Accuracy in budget compilation still requires improvement and budgets are less binding than they should be; there are a number of weak links in budget allocation and management, and internal controls need to be further strengthened; and some local governments and departments fail to provide a solid foundation for budget execution, and their slow implementation leads to funds sitting idle.
預算編制的準確性和預算的約束力需要進一步增強;預算分配管理存在薄弱環節,內部控制需要進一步加強;有的地方和部門預算執行基礎工作不扎實,支出進度較慢,造成財政資金閑置浪費。
Mechanisms for exit of special transfer payments need to be improved, and the coverage of periodic assessments is too narrow.
專項轉移支付退出機制不完善,定期評估覆蓋面較窄。
The execution of some projects under government-managed fund budgets is too slow, leading to a large carry-over; budget compilation has yet to cover all state capital operations; and enterprise employees' basic aged-care pensions have not been placed under nationally coordinated management, mechanisms for ensuring sustainable funding and benefit adjustments for medical insurance schemes need improvement, and there are challenges in ensuring sustained financing for social security funds.
政府性基金預算中有的項目執行慢、結轉資金較多;國有資本經營預算范圍還不完整;企業職工基本養老保險全國統籌仍未實現,醫療保險可持續籌資和待遇調整機制尚需完善, 社會保險基金財務可持續性面臨挑戰。
Some local governments make promises beyond their financial capacity and in disregard of the actual situation, which harms their fiscal sustainability. Some local governments are still guarantying debt or making borrowings in breach of regulations, making it hard to keep debt risk under control. Poor implementation of some policies is masking any sense of benefit that enterprises and the public would otherwise be feeling. We attach the utmost importance to these problems and will adopt strong measures for their resolution.
有的地區脫離實際,存在超出自身財力過高承諾等問題,影響財政可持續性。有的地方仍違規擔保或變相舉債,防范化解債務風險任務艱巨。有的政策執行和落實不到位,企業和群眾獲得感不強。我們高度重視這些問題,將下大氣力采取措施加以解決。

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addition [ə'diʃən]

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n. 增加,附加物,加法

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capacity [kə'pæsiti]

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n. 能力,容量,容積; 資格,職位
adj.

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proportion [prə'pɔ:ʃən]

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n. 比例,均衡,部份,(復)體積,規模
vt

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periodic [.piəri'ɔdik]

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adj. 周期的,定期的,間歇的,完句的

 
procurement [prə'kjuəmənt]

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n. 取得,征購,斡旋,促成

 
discipline ['disiplin]

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n. 訓練,紀律,懲罰,學科
vt. 訓練,懲

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trial ['traiəl]

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adj. 嘗試性的; 審訊的
n. 嘗試,努力

 
protection [prə'tekʃən]

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n. 保護,防衛

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dilapidated [di'læpideitid]

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adj. 毀壞的,荒廢的,要塌似的 動詞dilapida

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specific [spi'sifik]

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adj. 特殊的,明確的,具有特效的
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