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關于18年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況與19年國民經濟和社會發展計劃草案的報告(1)(中英對照)

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Report on the Implementation of the 2018 Plan for National Economic and Social Development and on the 2019 Draft Plan for National Economic and Social Development

關于2018年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況與2019年國民經濟和社會發展計劃草案的報告
Delivered at the Second Session of the Thirteenth National People's Congress on March 5, 2019
——2019年3月5日在第十三屆全國人民代表大會第二次會議上
National Development and Reform Commission
國家發展和改革委員會
Esteemed Deputies,
各位代表:
The National Development and Reform Commission has been entrusted by the State Council to deliver this report on the implementation of the 2018 plan and on the 2019 draft plan for national economic and social development to the Second Session of the 13th National People's Congress (NPC) for your deliberation. It also invites comments from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
受國務院委托,現將2018年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況與2019年國民經濟和社會發展計劃草案提請十三屆全國人大二次會議審議,并請全國政協各位委員提出意見。
I. Implementation of the 2018 Plan for National Economic and Social Development
一、2018年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況
In 2018, we were confronted with a complex and volatile environment internationally and formidable tasks in promoting reform, development, and stability at home. Under the strong leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, all regions and departments fully implemented the guiding principles of the 19th CPC National Congress and the second and third plenary sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee. We strengthened our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core, and keep in alignment; increased our confidence in the path, theory, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics; and resolutely upheld General Secretary Xi Jinping's core position on the Party Central Committee and in the Party as a whole, and resolutely upheld the Party Central Committee's authority and its centralized, unified leadership.
2018年,面對錯綜復雜的國際環境和艱巨繁重的國內改革發展穩定任務,在以習近平同志為核心的黨中央堅強領導下,各地區各部門以習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想為指導,深入貫徹黨的十九大和十九屆二中、三中全會精神,增強“四個意識”,堅定“四個自信”,做到“兩個維護”,
In accordance with the decisions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, we pursued coordinated implementation of the five-sphere integrated plan and the four-pronged comprehensive strategy. We stayed committed to the underlying principle of pursuing progress while ensuring stability, followed the new development philosophy, fulfilled the requirement for high-quality development, and took supply-side structural reform as our main task. We implemented the Report on the Work of the Government and the 2018 Plan for National Economic and Social Development approved at the First Session of the 13th NPC, and adopted the suggestions from the review of the 2018 Plan by the NPC Financial and Economic Affairs Committee, as well as those put forth at the 13th NPC Standing Committee's Seventh Session regarding the midterm assessment report on the implementation of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020).
按照黨中央、國務院決策部署,統籌推進“五位一體”總體布局,協調推進“四個全面”戰略布局,堅持穩中求進工作總基調,貫徹新發展理念,落實高質量發展要求,以供給側結構性改革為主線,認真執行十三屆全國人大一次會議審議批準的《政府工作報告》、2018年國民經濟和社會發展計劃,落實全國人大財政經濟委員會的審查意見、十三屆全國人大常委會第七次會議對“十三五”規劃《綱要》實施中期評估報告的審議意見等,
We focused on promoting market-oriented reforms and high-standard opening-up, worked hard to develop a modernized economy, and delivered solid progress in the critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution. We responded effectively to major changes in the external environment, and took coordinated steps to achieve steady growth, advance reform, make structural adjustments, improve living standards, and guard against risk. We worked to ensure stability in employment, financial operations, foreign trade, foreign investment, domestic investment, and expectations. The economy maintained general stability and registered good progress, the main targets and tasks in economic and social development for the year were accomplished, and implementation of the 2018 Plan was successful overall.
大力推進市場化改革、高水平開放,大力推進現代化經濟體系建設,堅決打好防范化解重大風險、精準脫貧、污染防治三大攻堅戰,有效應對外部環境深刻變化,統籌穩增長、促改革、調結構、惠民生、防風險,著力做好穩就業、穩金融、穩外貿、穩外資、穩投資、穩預期工作,經濟保持總體平穩、穩中有進,全年經濟社會發展主要目標任務較好完成,計劃執行情況總體良好。
1. We employed new and improved methods of macro regulation and ensured major economic indicators stayed within an appropriate range.
(一)著力創新和完善宏觀調控,經濟運行保持在合理區間。
We gave better play to the guiding role of national development plans to ensure continuity and stability between macroeconomic policies. We refrained from resorting to a deluge of strong stimulus policies. Instead, we strengthened targeted, precision, and well-timed regulation on the basis of range-based regulation. We took proactive measures to carry out anticipatory adjustments and fine-tuning, strengthened coordination between macroeconomic policies, and better managed expectations. We appropriately handled economic and trade friction between China and the US. With these efforts, we were able to maintain stable and sound economic development.
更好發揮國家發展規劃的戰略導向作用,保持宏觀經濟政策的連續性和穩定性,堅決不搞“大水漫灌”式強刺激,在區間調控的基礎上加強定向調控、精準調控、相機調控,主動預調微調、強化政策協同、做好預期管理,穩妥應對中美經貿摩擦,保持了經濟平穩健康發展。
1) Macro-regulation targets were achieved.
一是宏觀調控目標較好完成。
China's gross domestic product (GDP) reached 90.03 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.6%, which was in line with the projected target. We implemented a more proactive employment policy, and established a sound emergency response mechanism to keep employment stable. More jobs were created through innovation and business startups. A total of 13.61 million urban jobs were added over the year, and the survey-based urban unemployment rate was kept at a relatively low level of about 5%. For prices we strengthened monitoring, analysis, early warning, and regulation, and ensured market supply and price levels remained stable. The consumer price index (CPI) registered a moderate rise of 2.1% for the year. A basic equilibrium was kept in the balance of payments and foreign exchange reserves were stable at over US$ 3 trillion.
國內生產總值達到90.03萬億元,增長6.6%,符合預期目標。實施更加積極的就業政策,建立完善穩就業應急機制,創新創業帶動就業的作用進一步增強,全年城鎮新增就業1361萬人,全國城鎮調查失業率穩定在5%左右的較低水平。加強價格監測分析預警調控,做好市場保供穩價工作,全年居民消費價格溫和上漲2.1%。國際收支基本平衡,外匯儲備穩定在3萬億美元以上。
2) Fiscal and financial indicators were stable.
二是財政金融運行基本平穩。
We implemented a proactive fiscal policy with greater intensity and enhanced its performance. Further steps were taken to cut taxes and fees, and efforts to improve the composition of government spending continued, to ensure funding for major areas such as the improvement of living standards. Revenue in the general public budget was 18.34 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.2%; expenditure totaled 22.09 trillion yuan, an increase of 8.7%; and the fiscal deficit was 2.38 trillion yuan, the same as the budgeted figure. In monetary policy, a prudent and neutral stance was maintained, and we used policies of differentiated reserve ratios and differentiated credit to guide more funding toward private enterprises and small and micro businesses in the real economy. The national financing guaranty fund was put into operation. At the end of 2018, growth in the balance of the M2 money supply was 8.1%.
積極的財政政策聚力增效,減稅降費力度進一步加大,財政支出結構持續優化,有力保障民生等重點領域資金需求。全國一般公共預算收入18.34萬億元,增長6.2%;全國一般公共預算支出22.09萬億元,增長8.7%;財政赤字2.38萬億元,與預算持平。穩健的貨幣政策保持中性,通過差別化準備金、差異化信貸等政策,引導資金更多投向民營企業和小微企業等實體經濟。國家融資擔保基金設立運作。年末廣義貨幣(M2)余額增長8.1%。
3) Investment in areas of weakness continued to increase.
三是投資補短板力度持續加大。
We enabled investment from the central government budget to play a leading role in improving the supply structure. We established a mechanism to strengthen coordination in shoring up infrastructure weaknesses, added to the major project reserve, and coordinated the planning and construction of major infrastructure projects. The length of in-service railways exceeded 131,000 kilometers, including more than 29,000 kilometers of high-speed rail lines. The total length of expressways now stands at 143,000 kilometers. To encourage sustainable and healthy private investment, we rolled out a number of attractive projects in sectors like rail, civil aviation, oil and natural gas, and telecommunications, and the public-private partnership (PPP) model was extended to more areas in a well-regulated and orderly way. Total fixed-asset investment (excluding rural households) increased by 5.9%, which includes an 8.7% increase in private investment. There were continuous improvements in the composition of investment, with investment in high-tech manufacturing and equipment manufacturing growing 16.1% and 11.1% respectively.
充分發揮中央預算內投資對優化供給結構的引導帶動作用,建立加大基礎設施領域補短板力度協調機制,加強重大項目儲備,統籌推進重大基礎設施規劃建設,鐵路營業里程超過13.1萬公里,其中高速鐵路超過2.9萬公里;高速公路總里程達到14.3萬公里。促進民間投資持續健康發展,在鐵路、民航、油氣、電信等領域向民間資本推出一批有吸引力的項目,規范有序推廣政府和社會資本合作(PPP)模式。固定資產投資(不含農戶)增長5.9%,其中民間投資增長8.7%。投資結構持續優化,高技術制造業、裝備制造業投資分別增長16.1%和11.1%。
4) Strong improvements in the quality and scale of consumption were achieved.
四是消費提質擴容積極推進。
The Guidelines on Improving Consumption-Promoting Systems and Mechanisms to Unleash the Potential of Personal Consumption were implemented, along with a three-year action plan. The campaign to create a worry-free atmosphere for consumers yielded further progress and helped improve the consumption environment. We lowered import tariffs on medicines, automobiles, and some non-durable consumer goods, and improved government subsidy policies for promoting the use of new-energy vehicles (NEVs). We improved the supply system for new types of information products at a faster pace and maintained rapid growth in information consumption. We unveiled and put in motion the Implementation Plan on Making Hainan an International Hotspot for Tourism and Shopping and the Action Plan on Improving and Upgrading Rural Tourism (2018-2020). Trials to boost cultural consumption among urban and rural residents continued, over 1,000 key state tourist sites cut their ticket prices, and a national training program was launched in the domestic services sector, thus further unleashing the potential for consumption in relevant areas. Total annual retail sales of consumer goods rose 9%. With a contribution of 76.2% of growth, consumption is playing a much bigger role in driving the economy.
完善促進消費體制機制進一步激發居民消費潛力的若干意見和三年實施方案出臺實施,放心消費創新活動深入推進,消費環境持續優化。降低藥品、汽車、日用消費品等進口關稅,調整完善新能源汽車推廣應用財政補貼政策。加快提升新型信息產品供給體系質量,信息消費保持快速增長。海南省建設國際旅游消費中心的實施方案、促進鄉村旅游發展提質升級行動方案(2018年-2020年)印發實施,引導城鄉居民擴大文化消費試點工作持續推進,上千家重點國有景區門票價格下降,全國家政培訓提升行動啟動,相關領域消費潛力進一步釋放,全年社會消費品零售總額增長9%。消費對經濟增長拉動作用增強,最終消費支出貢獻率提高到76.2%。

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