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關于18年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況與19年國民經濟和社會發展計劃草案的報告(2)(中英對照)

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2. We steadily advanced supply-side structural reform and made strong progress toward high-quality development.

(二)供給側結構性改革深入推進,高質量發展取得積極進展。
We focused on top-level planning to promote high-quality development. We implemented the Guidelines on Promoting High-Quality Development, and took gradual steps toward establishing an institutional system for high-quality development. We continued to make solid progress in supply-side structural reform. With the focus on cutting ineffective supply, fostering new growth drivers, and reducing costs in the real economy, we saw yet further improvements in the composition of supply and sustained increases in the quality and efficiency of development.
著力進行推動高質量發展的頂層設計,制定實施推動高質量發展的意見,推動高質量發展的制度體系逐步建立。扎實推進供給側結構性改革,以“破、立、降”為主攻方向,持續改善供給結構,發展質量效益穩步提升。
1) Solid progress was achieved in cutting overcapacity.
一是去產能工作扎實開展。
Our efforts to cut overcapacity through structural adjustments and improvements continued. We cut production capacity by over 35 million metric tons of crude steel and 270 million metric tons of coal, thus achieving the targets for steel and coal overcapacity cuts in the 13th Five-Year Plan two years ahead of schedule. A large number of small, poorly-managed, and heavily-polluting enterprises were closed down, and a relatively high rate of industrial capacity utilization was maintained. Further progress was made in handling the debts of "zombie enterprises" and enterprises with excess capacity, and proper steps were taken to help workers displaced due to overcapacity cuts, ensuring they were resettled to new positions or found new employment in a smooth and orderly fashion.
結構性去產能、系統性優產能持續推進,壓減粗鋼產能3500萬噸以上、退出煤炭落后產能2.7億噸,均提前兩年完成“十三五”目標任務,一大批“散亂污”企業出清,工業產能利用率處在較高水平。進一步做好“僵尸企業”及去產能企業債務處置工作,穩妥推進去產能職工安置,轉崗再就業工作平穩有序進行。
2) New strides were taken in revitalizing the real economy.
二是振興實體經濟邁出新步伐。
As progress continued in building China into a manufacturer of quality, the total value-added of industry broke the 30-trillion-yuan mark. We promulgated the Guidelines on Promoting the Demonstration and Application of Newly-Developed Major Technological Equipment, and stepped up efforts to make breakthroughs in a number of core and key technologies. We moved forward with the implementation of the Three-Year Action Plan on Enhancing Core Competitiveness in the Manufacturing Sector (2018-2020) and the Action Plan on Developing the Industrial Internet (2018-2020). We promoted the in-depth integration of the internet, big data, and artificial intelligence (AI) into the real economy, and carried out demonstration projects for integrated applications of the industrial internet plus smart manufacturing. Breakthroughs were made at a faster pace in core technologies in key areas such as rail transit, high-end medical appliances, and industrial robots, and these have been successfully applied to industry.
制造強國建設持續推進,工業增加值突破30萬億元。促進首臺(套)重大技術裝備示范應用的意見印發實施,關鍵核心技術攻關加快開展。增強制造業核心競爭力三年行動計劃(2018-2020年)、工業互聯網發展行動計劃(2018-2020年)深入實施,推動互聯網、大數據、人工智能和實體經濟深度融合,推進工業互聯網+智能制造集成應用示范,軌道交通、高端醫療器械、工業機器人等制造業重點領域關鍵技術加快突破并實現產業化。
We carried out a new round of technology transformation and upgrading projects, and accelerated technology transformations in major areas such as high-end equipment, smart manufacturing, and new materials. Further strides were taken in the strategy to make China a country strong on quality, and our work on strengthening quality, standards, and brands was intensified. We issued the Plan on the Layout and Development of National Logistics Hubs. In the services sector, we continued implementing the guidelines on innovation-driven development, carried out dedicated campaigns to raise quality, and conducted trials of integrated reform.
新一輪技術改造升級工程組織實施,高端裝備、智能制造、新材料等重點領域技術改造加快推進。質量強國戰略深入實施,標準質量品牌建設持續加強。國家物流樞紐布局和建設規劃印發實施。服務業創新發展大綱深入落實,服務質量提升專項行動加快推進,服務業綜合改革試點深入開展。
3) Work on bringing down costs continued.
三是降成本工作持續推進。
We stepped up efforts to reduce taxes and fees, helping ease the burden on enterprises and individuals by about 1.3 trillion yuan for the year. The rates of value added tax (VAT) were lowered from 17% to 16% in manufacturing and some other industries, and from 11% to 10% in industries such as transportation, postal services, construction, and basic telecommunications services and on goods such as agricultural products. The annual sales threshold for small-scale taxpayers was raised. The policy of a 75% tax deduction for research and development (R&D) expenses was extended to cover all enterprises. Financial institutions' credit line threshold for VAT exemption rose to 10 million yuan. We reduced or abolished a range of government administrative fees and government-managed funds. We continued the policy of reducing businesses' contributions to social insurance schemes and the housing provident fund, and overhauled and standardized business service fees. We took strong steps to lower energy and logistics costs, and continued to raise the proportion of market-based electricity transactions. The target to cut the price of electricity for general industrial and commercial businesses by an average of 10% was surpassed. Purchase tax on trailers was halved, and the policy of differentiated tolls was extended to cover more expressways.
大力實施減稅降費,全年為企業和個人減負約1.3萬億元。制造業等行業增值稅稅率從17%降至16%,交通運輸、郵政、建筑、基礎電信服務等行業及農產品等貨物的增值稅稅率從11%降至10%,提高小規模納稅人年銷售額標準,研發費用加計扣除比例提高到75%的政策擴大至所有企業,金融機構免征增值稅貸款單戶授信額度提高到1000萬元。降低、停征一批行政事業性收費和政府性基金。延長階段性降低社會保險費率和企業住房公積金繳存比例政策期限,清理規范經營服務性收費。大力推動降低用能、物流等成本,市場化交易電量比重進一步提高,全國一般工商業電價平均降低10%的目標超額完成,對掛車減半征收車輛購置稅,擴大高速公路差異化收費試點。
3. We made solid progress in the critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution, and yielded positive results in key tasks.
(三)扎實打好三大攻堅戰,重點任務取得積極進展。
We formulated an action plan for winning the three critical battles, for which implementation has proceeded as planned and in accordance with laws and regulations. We scored notable achievements in improving financial governance, hit our poverty alleviation targets for the year, and secured fresh progress in improving the environment.
制定三大攻堅戰行動方案,依法依規有序實施,金融治理效果明顯,脫貧攻堅完成年度目標,生態環境狀況明顯好轉。
1) Major risks were manageable on the whole.
一是重大風險總體可控。
We have curbed excessively rapid growth of the macro-leverage ratio and maintained general stability in the financial market. The RMB exchange rate has remained generally stable at an appropriate level. Market restraints have been gradually enhanced, and the concept of prudent business operations has taken stronger root. Further improvements were made in financial regulation mechanisms, and initial success was achieved in addressing acute problems in the financial sector. We moved forward with reforms to improve the management system for foreign-debt registration and effectively guarded against foreign debt risks. The growth of commodity housing prices in major cities was basically brought under control, and the policy of providing monetary compensation to people displaced by the rebuilding of run-down urban areas was improved according to local circumstances.
宏觀杠桿率過快增長勢頭得到有效遏制,金融市場總體平穩,人民幣匯率保持合理穩定,市場約束逐步增強,審慎經營理念得到強化,金融監管制度進一步完善,金融亂象整治取得階段性成效。穩步推進外債登記制管理改革,有效防范外債風險。重點城市新建商品住宅銷售價格上漲態勢基本得到控制,因地制宜調整完善棚戶區改造的貨幣化安置政策。
2) Targeted poverty alleviation registered strong progress.
二是精準扶貧精準脫貧有力推進。
We stepped up support and assistance to particular groups affected by poverty and to extremely poor areas, including the three regions and three prefectures. We made solid progress in relocating people from inhospitable areas and implementing work-relief programs. We stepped up initiatives to alleviate poverty through the development of local industries, employment, education, healthcare services, culture, tourism, and the internet, as well as the provision of ecological conservation subsidies and financial support. These efforts have enabled poor areas to boost their capacity for self-sufficient development. Over the year, 13.86 million people in rural areas were lifted out of poverty, our target of relocating 2.8 million people from inhospitable areas was achieved, and we helped 3.88 million people in poverty find jobs.
進一步加大對“三區三州”等深度貧困地區和特殊貧困群體的幫扶力度,易地扶貧搬遷、以工代賑等重點任務扎實推進,產業、就業、教育、健康、生態、金融、網絡、文化和旅游等扶貧工作持續深化,貧困地區自我發展能力不斷增強。農村貧困人口脫貧1386萬人,280萬人易地扶貧搬遷建設任務順利完成,幫扶貧困勞動力實現就業388萬人。
3) Major progress was made in the critical battle against pollution.
三是污染防治攻堅戰取得重大進展。
Putting into practice Xi Jinping's thinking on promoting ecological progress and the principles from the national conference on ecological and environmental protection, we improved top-level planning for strengthening ecological and environmental protection across the board. Follow-up environmental inspections were carried out by the central government as planned, the river chief and lake chief systems came into effect nationwide, and trials of the national park system registered steady progress. We launched campaigns to protect our blue skies, clear waters, and clean lands across the country and began implementing the Three-Year Action Plan for Keeping Our Skies Blue. The annual average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased by 10.4% in the cities at and above prefecture level that fell short of the national standards, and further steps were taken to address water and soil pollution. Total emissions of major pollutants and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP continued to fall.
深入貫徹習近平生態文明思想和全國生態環境保護大會精神,全面加強生態環境保護的頂層設計進一步完善,中央生態環境保護督察“回頭看”有序開展,河長制湖長制全面建立,國家公園體制試點穩步推進。藍天、碧水、凈土保衛戰全面推進,打贏藍天保衛戰三年行動計劃等出臺實施,細顆粒物(PM2.5)未達標地級及以上城市年均濃度下降10.4%,水、土壤污染防治行動深入開展,主要污染物排放總量和單位國內生產總值二氧化碳排放量進一步下降。
We took resolute measures to block illegal waste imports, and achieved a reduction of 46.5% in solid waste imports on the previous year. Work on the sorted treatment of waste made rapid progress. We completed the first steps in setting standards for enforcing ecological-conservation red lines in 15 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities, including Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, and basically completed plans for 16 others including Shanxi. We formulated the guidelines on deepening reforms for coordinated administrative law enforcement to protect ecosystems and the environment.
堅定不移推進禁止洋垃圾入境,全國固體廢物進口總量比上年減少46.5%。加快推進垃圾分類處理。初步劃定京津冀等15個省份生態保護紅線,山西等16個省份基本形成劃定方案。深化生態環境保護綜合行政執法改革的指導意見印發實施。
We made steady progress in major ecological conservation and restoration projects. We returned more than 825,333 hectares of marginal farmland to forest or grassland, and undertook projects to return 2.47 million hectares of grazing land to grassland, which involved constructing grassland fencing and improving the condition of degraded grasslands. We did more to protect coastal wetlands and strictly controlled and regulated coastal reclamation activities. Progress was made in establishing market-based mechanisms for diversified ecological compensation and the Guidelines on Innovating and Improving Pricing Mechanisms for Promoting Green Development were issued for implementation.
重大生態保護修復工程有序推進。實施退耕還林還草1238萬畝,實施草原圍欄、退化草原改良等退牧還草工程3700多萬畝。加強濱海濕地保護、嚴格管控圍填海。市場化、多元化生態保護補償機制建設積極推進,創新和完善促進綠色發展價格機制的意見出臺實施。
We steadily moved forward with the work to adopt clean energy sources for winter heating in northern China, and achieved progress in building systems for natural gas production, supply, reserve, and sale. We continued working to cut coal consumption and to replace coal with alternative energy in key areas, and launched trials on trading energy consumption rights. The total volume targets for upgrading coal-burning power plants nationwide to achieve ultra-low emissions and energy efficiency were completed two years ahead of schedule. We made moves to strengthen the development and regulation of the long-term mechanism for absorbing clean energy into power grids, and delivered a reduction in both the amount and ratio of idle power and a decrease of 3.1% in energy consumption per unit of GDP. Steady progress was made in establishing a national market for trading carbon emission rights.
北方地區冬季清潔取暖工作穩妥推進,天然氣產供儲銷體系建設取得積極進展。重點地區煤炭消費減量替代持續推進,用能權交易試點啟動實施,提前兩年完成燃煤電廠超低排放和節能改造總量目標任務,清潔能源消納長效機制建設和運行調節加強,棄電量和棄電率實現“雙降”,單位國內生產總值能耗下降3.1%。全國碳排放權交易市場建設穩步推進。
On the international stage, China worked to bring about positive results at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Poland, and made an important contribution to ensuring the adoption of the Paris Agreement's implementation guidelines.
推動聯合國氣候變化大會取得積極成果,為《巴黎協定》實施細則的通過發揮重要作用。

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