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關于18年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況與19年國民經濟和社會發展計劃草案的報告(3)(中英對照)

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4. We fully implemented the innovation-driven development strategy and continued to unlock new enthusiasm for innovation and business startups.

(四)全面實施創新驅動發展戰略,創新創業活力持續釋放。
We bolstered the role of innovation as the primary driver of development. Substantive breakthroughs were made in reforming the management system for science and technology, and efficiency was greatly enhanced in the national innovation system. High-tech industries and strategic emerging industries recorded rapid growth, the Internet Plus action plan was further implemented, and much progress was made toward fostering new growth drivers. Innovation and business startups have been elevated to yet higher levels, and new strides have been made in building China into a country of innovators.
強化創新第一動力作用,科技體制改革取得實質性突破,國家創新體系效能大幅提升,高技術產業和戰略性新興產業實現較快發展,“互聯網+”行動深入推進,新動能培育取得積極進展,創新創業水平進一步提高,創新型國家建設邁出新步伐。
1) Our scientific and technological strength and innovation capacity continued to increase.
一是科技實力和創新能力不斷提升。
China's spending on R&D reached 2.18% of GDP, and the contribution of scientific and technological advances to economic growth hit 58.5%. Basic research was further strengthened with a number of firsts being achieved: Chinese scientists demonstrated a toffoli gate in a semiconductor three-qubit system, found evidence for Majorana bound states in an iron-based superconductor, and created a single-chromosome eukaryote. We also saw a constant stream of major scientific and technological advances throughout the year: The Chang'e-4 lunar probe successfully landed on the far side of the moon; China's second homemade aircraft carrier took to the seas for its trial voyage; our homemade large amphibious aircraft completed its first overwater flight; the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System began providing services to the world; and China's 5G system equipment has reached the pre-commercial level.
全國研究與試驗發展經費投入強度達到2.18%,科技進步貢獻率預計提高到58.5%。基礎研究進一步加強,首次在半導體量子點體系中實現三量子比特邏輯門,首次發現鐵基超導體中的馬約拉納束縛態,首次人工創建單條染色體真核細胞。一批重大科技成果涌現,嫦娥四號探測器成功著陸月球背面,第二艘航母出海試航,國產大型水陸兩棲飛機水上首飛,北斗導航系統面向全球開啟服務,5G技術系統設備達到預商用水平。
We ensured faster and better-quality infrastructure construction in major science and technology, civil-space, information, and other fields, and continued improving the management mechanisms and assessment and incentive systems for scientific research. Pilot reforms for comprehensive innovation have made further progress – 123 out of 169 preliminary trials were completed and a second batch of 23 reform measures are currently being replicated and applied on a broader scale. Efforts to see Beijing and Shanghai become global science and technology innovation centers picked up pace, plans on building Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area into an international center for science and technology innovation were issued for implementation, and construction on the three comprehensive national science centers in Beijing's Huairou, Shanghai's Zhangjiang, and Anhui's Hefei advanced smoothly. The Implementation Plan for the Innovation-Driven Development Strategy of Hainan Province was released.
重大科技、民用空間、信息等領域基礎設施建設提質提速,科研管理機制和評價激勵制度不斷完善。全面創新改革試驗169項先行先試改革舉措已完成123項,第二批共23項改革舉措正在復制推廣。北京、上海全球影響力科技創新中心建設加速推進,粵港澳大灣區國際科技創新中心建設方案印發實施,北京懷柔、上海張江、安徽合肥3個綜合性國家科學中心建設進展順利,海南省創新驅動發展戰略實施方案出臺實施。
Our state-level new areas, development zones, 20 national innovation demonstration zones, and 168 national new- and high-tech development zones played a stronger role in leading development, and good progress was made in the construction of national technological innovation centers for high-speed trains and NEVs. We unveiled the Guidelines on Building National Industrial Innovation Centers, and stepped up the building of the three national industrial innovation centers for advanced computing, advanced memory technology, and bio-breeding. We continued to enhance the role of enterprises as the principal entities in technological innovation, and certified a further 111 state-level enterprise technology centers.
國家級新區、開發區和20個國家自主創新示范區、168個國家高新區的引領作用增強,高速列車、新能源汽車等國家技術創新中心建設深入推進。國家產業創新中心工作指引出臺實施,先進計算、先進存儲、生物育種等3個國家產業創新中心加快建設。企業技術創新主體地位不斷提高,新認定111家國家企業技術中心。
2) Business startups and innovation initiatives were intensified.
二是大眾創業萬眾創新縱深推進。
The Guidelines on Promoting High-Quality Development of Innovation and Business Startups and Upgrading the National Business Startups and Innovation Initiative was promulgated. We continued to carry out the Three-Year Action Plan for Developing Business Startups and Innovation Platforms in Manufacturing, and confirmed 150 demonstration projects to pilot these platforms. Over 6,500 maker spaces have served 400,000 entrepreneurial teams, and helped generate over 1.4 million jobs; 1,824 rural maker spaces have filled 49,000 places on training courses and incubated 23,000 enterprises. We encouraged more robust development of business startups and innovation demonstration centers and similar demonstration hubs for small and micro businesses, and set up a sound national information service portal for related policies. We successfully held the 2018 National Entrepreneurship and Innovation Week and the Innovating China Tour. The National Venture Capital Guide Fund for Emerging Industries operated effectively, helpingmore than 1,200 new enterprises receive investment. The number of newly registered businesses in 2018 grew by 10.3%, with an average of 18,400 new businesses daily.
推動創新創業高質量發展打造“雙創”升級版的意見出臺實施,制造業“雙創”平臺培育三年行動計劃深入推進,確定150個制造業“雙創”平臺試點示范項目。6500多家眾創空間服務創業團隊40萬家,創業就業人數超過140萬人。1824家星創天地培訓農村創業人才4.9萬人次,孵化企業2.3萬家。加強“雙創”示范基地建設和小微企業創業創新示范基地建設,建立完善國家創新創業政策信息服務網,成功舉辦2018年全國“雙創”活動周和“創響中國”系列活動。國家新興產業創業投資引導基金有效運轉,新投資企業超過1200家。全年新登記注冊企業增長10.3%,平均每天新設1.84萬戶。
3) Emerging industries enjoyed vigorous development.
三是新興產業蓬勃發展。
The National Development Plan for Strategic Emerging Industries during the 13th Five-Year Plan Period was fully implemented. We promoted the development of strategic industry clusters, and moved faster to advance major projects on the "Internet Plus" model, next-generation information infrastructure, innovation-driven AI development, bio-tech industry, and civil-space infrastructure. The value-added of large high-tech manufacturing enterprises grew 11.7%, much higher than that of large industrial enterprises as a whole. The E-Commerce Law was promulgated, and a number of policies were issued over the course of the year to guide and regulate the development of new forms of business, such as the digital economy and the sharing economy. Accommodative and prudential regulation over new industries and new forms of business was further improved, allowing for the emergence of a stream of new hot innovations such as smart retail and capacity sharing. The online retail sales of goods grew by 25.4%, accounting for 18.4% of total retail sales of consumer goods, an increase of 3.4 percentage points from the previous year. We accelerated the building of eight national comprehensive experimental zones for big data in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Guizhou, and other areas.
全面落實“十三五”國家戰略性新興產業發展規劃,推動戰略性產業集群發展,“互聯網+”、新一代信息基礎設施、人工智能創新發展、生物產業倍增、民用空間基礎設施等重大工程加速推進。規模以上高技術制造業增加值增長11.7%,快于全部規模以上工業增速。電子商務法正式公布,引導和規范數字經濟、共享經濟等新業態健康發展的政策文件陸續出臺,對新業態新模式的包容審慎監管進一步完善,智能零售、產能共享等新熱點持續涌現,全年實物商品網上零售額增長25.4%,占社會消費品零售總額比例達18.4%,比上年提高3.4個百分點。京津冀、貴州等8個國家大數據綜合試驗區加快建設。
4) The military-civilian integration strategy was implemented to good effect.
四是軍民融合發展戰略扎實推進。
Construction began on demonstration zones to promote innovation in military-civilian integration (MCI). Key special MCI projects on science and technology and the platform for military-civilian collaborative innovation in science and technology were launched. Smooth progress was made in major MCI demonstration projects, and strong steps were taken to develop the national MCI information platform. The national MCI industrial investment fund for defense-related science, technology, and industry was put into operation, along with the national-level MCI industrial investment fund. We also broadened investment and financing channels for military-civilian integration, by offering support for qualified MCI enterprises to issue corporate bonds. The third China Dual-Use Technology and Application Contest and the fourth Exhibition of MCI High-Tech Equipment Outcomes were successfully held.
國家軍民融合創新示范區啟動建設。科技軍民融合重點專項與軍民科技協同創新平臺啟動,軍民融合重大示范項目建設進展順利。國家軍民融合信息化平臺建設有力推進。國家國防科技工業軍民融合產業投資基金、國家級軍民融合發展產業投資基金啟動運行。支持符合條件的軍民融合企業發行企業債券,拓寬軍民融合投融資渠道。第三屆中國軍民兩用技術創新應用大賽和第四屆軍民融合高技術裝備成果展成功舉辦。
5. We pursued deeper reform and greater opening-up and unlocked more drivers of economic and social development.
(五)深化改革擴大開放,經濟社會發展動力進一步激發。
Reform of the State Council's institutions progressed as per the arrangements in the Plan on Deepening Reform of Party and State Institutions. A vast array of activities were held to celebrate the 40th anniversary of China's reform and opening-up, and a host of major measures to promote reform and opening-up were implemented.
按照深化黨和國家機構改革方案,國務院機構改革有序推進。深入開展紀念改革開放40周年系列慶祝活動,推動一系列重大改革開放舉措落地。
1) The business environment consistently improved.
一是營商環境持續優化。
Reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers, improve regulation, and upgrade services continued apace. Fully implementing the Negative List for Market Access, we issued the 2018 version, and took steps to ensure industries, sectors, and commercial activities not on the list could be fairly accessed by all types of market entities in accordance with law. We also abolished a number of items subject to administrative approval including those for automobile investment projects. The time taken to set up a business has been dramatically shortened to within 8.5 working days in cities at and above sub-provincial level and provincial capitals.
“放管服”改革深入推進。全面實施全國統一的市場準入負面清單制度,市場準入負面清單(2018年版)發布,清單以外的行業、領域、業務等各類市場主體皆可依法平等進入。取消汽車投資項目核準等一批行政許可事項,大幅壓縮企業開辦時間,副省級以上城市和省會城市企業開辦時間壓縮至8.5個工作日以內。
The reform separating out the business license from certificates required for starting a business was rolled out nationwide, and the national reform to merge 24 types of certification into one certificate was fully implemented. Reform of the industrial production licensing system picked up speed, and the number of product categories has been cut from 38 to 24. Trial reforms on the approval system for construction projects were started in Beijing and 14 other cities, as well as in Zhejiang Province. In the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business ranking (2019), China jumped from 78th to 46th place. We also piloted a business environment evaluation suited to China's conditions in 22 cities, marking the first step toward establishing China's own business environment evaluation system.
“證照分離”改革在全國推開,全面實施全國統一“二十四證合一”改革。工業產品生產許可證制度改革加快推進,產品種類由38類降至24類。在北京等15個城市和浙江省開展工程建設項目審批制度改革試點。世界銀行公布的我國營商環境全球排名由2017年第78位大幅躍升至第46位。在22個城市開展中國營商環境試評價,中國營商環境評價體系初步構建。
Progress was made in promoting the oversight model using randomly selected inspectors to inspect randomly selected entities and requiring the prompt release of results, and full coverage of daily oversight in market regulation was basically realized. We continued building the social credit system. We introduced targeted measures in 19 key sectors against acts in bad faith, including telecom fraud, tax evasion, and tax fraud. The mechanisms of joint incentives for acts of good faith and joint punishment for acts of bad faith produced initial results.
深入推進“雙隨機、一公開”監管,基本實現市場監管領域日常監管全覆蓋。社會信用體系建設持續推進,電信詐騙、偷逃騙稅等19個重點領域失信問題專項治理深入開展,守信聯合激勵和失信聯合懲戒機制初顯成效。
We launched reforms to see that people need only log in to one website or visit one place and make one trip to access a government service. We formulated lists of responsibilities on data sharing for departments under the State Council, and basically established a national unified system of platforms for sharing and exchanging data. This system has so far facilitated data exchanges of 36 billion in number. We worked hard to provide more convenient approval services, and made solid progress in the "less certificates, more convenience" initiative and the campaign to free up 100 bottlenecks preventing people from accessing government services.
政務服務“一網一門一次”改革啟動實施,建立國務院部門數據共享責任清單,基本建成全國一體化的數據共享交換平臺體系,數據共享交換量達360億條次。深入推進審批服務便民化,“減證便民”行動和“群眾辦事百項堵點疏解行動”扎實開展。
2) Reform of state capital and SOEs picked up pace.
二是國資國企改革加快推進。
The reform to introduce mixed ownership to SOEs moved forward in an active and steady manner. We issued the policies for deepening pilot reforms on mixed ownership, and carried out pilot mixed-ownership reforms sequentially in 50 SOEs in three groups, yielding important results. The Guidelines on Reforming the Salary-Setting Mechanism for SOEs and the Guidelines on Promoting Pilot Reforms in State Capital Investment and Management Companies were published. A system anchored by the Guidelines on Deepening Reform of SOEs as well as other supplementary policies was put in place. The Guidelines on Strengthening Constraints on SOEs' Debt-to-Asset Ratios were promulgated, marking the initial step in setting up a constraint mechanism for SOEs' debt-to-asset ratios. The modern SOE system with Chinese characteristics was further improved, and faster progress was made in establishing a corporate governance structure with effective checks and balances and flexible and efficient market-based operating mechanisms.
國有企業混合所有制改革積極穩步開展,深化混合所有制改革試點有關政策出臺實施,三批50家混合所有制改革試點梯次推進并取得重要階段性成效。改革國有企業工資決定機制的意見、推進國有資本投資、運營公司改革試點的實施意見出臺,深化國企改革“1+N”政策體系搭建完成。加強國有企業資產負債約束的指導意見印發實施,國有企業資產負債約束機制初步建立。中國特色現代國有企業制度進一步完善,有效制衡的法人治理結構和靈活高效的市場化經營機制加快建立。
3) The private sector received stronger support.
三是支持民營經濟發展力度加大。
We strengthened the protection of property rights and intellectual property rights (IPR). We set up a robust mechanism to ensure coordinated property rights protection, conducted a review of all regulations and normative documents relating to property rights protection, and carried out extensive campaigns to address failures within government institutions to act in good faith in this area. The Plan for the Internet Plus IPR Protection was unveiled. In line with our efforts to promote entrepreneurship, we repealed the Provisional Regulations for Private Enterprises. We worked to improve the transmission mechanism of monetary policy, and encouraged financial institutions to provide more credit to the real economy and to manufacturing firms, private enterprises, and small and micro businesses in particular. We set up instruments to support private enterprises in debt financing and help them find market-based solutions to financing problems.
加強產權和知識產權保護,建立健全產權保護協調機制,全面清理涉及產權保護的規章規范性文件,深入開展政府機構失信問題專項治理行動。“互聯網+”知識產權保護工作方案出臺實施。大力弘揚企業家精神,私營企業暫行條例廢止。著力疏通貨幣政策傳導機制,鼓勵金融機構擴大對實體經濟特別是制造業企業、民營企業、小微企業的信貸投放。設立民營企業債券融資支持工具,以市場化方式幫助企業緩解融資難問題。
4) The reform of the fiscal, tax, and financial systems registered steady progress.
四是財稅金融改革穩步推進。
We continued reforms to divide fiscal powers and expenditure responsibilities between central and local governments on a sector by sector basis, and made consistent improvements to performance-based budgetary management. In the area of tax, further progress was made in VAT reform. We revised the Law on Individual Income Tax and its implementation regulations, raised the income tax threshold, introduced six special deductible items, and improved the structure of tax rates. The environmental protection tax came into force.
中央與地方財政事權和支出責任劃分改革分領域推進,預算績效管理制度不斷完善。增值稅改革進一步深化。修改個人所得稅法及其實施條例,提高基本減除費用標準,設立6項專項附加扣除,稅率結構進一步調整優化。環境保護稅順利開征。
We published policies on improving regulation of systemically important financial institutions, on strengthening oversight over nonfinancial firms' investment in financial institutions, and on improving the management of state-owned financial capital. The orderly development of private banks was promoted, with approval being granted for the establishment of 17 private banks.
完善系統重要性金融機構監管、加強非金融企業投資金融機構監管、完善國有金融資本管理等政策文件出臺實施。有序推動民營銀行發展,17家民營銀行獲批開業。
5) The Belt and Road Initiative made new advances.
五是共建“一帶一路”取得新進展。
A symposium was held to mark the fifth anniversary of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). During the symposium the BRI's future trajectory was outlined with a view to ensuring it continues building momentum and producing concrete outcomes. Focusing on key areas and key countries, we worked to build on the collective desire for cooperation and promoted the coordination of development plans. To date, a total of 171 inter-governmental cooperation documents have been signed with over 150 countries and international organizations.
推進“一帶一路”建設工作5周年座談會召開,為推動“一帶一路”建設走深走實明確了方向。圍繞重點方向重點國別,鞏固共建意愿、推動規劃對接,已累計同150多個國家和國際組織簽署171份政府間合作文件。
We steadily increased international industrial-capacity cooperation. The positive effect of industrial concentration in overseas economic and trade cooperation zones was much more noticeable, and third-market cooperation documents were signed with over ten countries, including France, Japan, and Singapore. There was substantial progress in key BRI projects like the China-Laos and China-Thailand rail lines and the China-UAE Industrial Park. Construction is fully underway on the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed line and making smooth progress on key port projects like Gwadar in Pakistan. We made important improvements to the quality and efficiency of the China-Europe freight train services. The services have so far registered over 13,000 trips, and have seen a 20-percentage-point increase in the number of return journeys to China. Marked progress was made in aviation connectivity among BRI countries, with the opening of 106 new air routes.
國際產能合作穩步推進,境外經貿合作區產業集聚效應增強,與法國、日本、新加坡等10多個國家簽署第三方市場合作文件,中老、中泰鐵路和中阿(聯酋)“一帶一路”產能合作園區等重點項目取得實質性進展,雅萬高鐵全面開工,瓜達爾港等重點港口項目進展順利,中歐班列提質增效工作取得重要進展,累計開行超過1.3萬列,回程率提高近20個百分點。“一帶一路”沿線國家航空互聯互通水平顯著提高,新開航線106條。
The BRI International Science Organizations Alliance was established to promote collaboration on building technology transfer platforms between China and ASEAN, Arab states, and countries in south Asia, central Asia, and central and eastern Europe, and to co-establish science and technology parks with the Philippines, Indonesia, and six other countries. We successfully hosted the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, which produced many positive outcomes. Work on the Digital Silk Road progressed steadily with the signing of cooperation MOUs with 16 countries, and faster moves were made to promote Silk Road E-Commerce across the globe with the signing of cooperation agreements with 17 countries.
“一帶一路”國際科學組織聯盟成立,推動與東盟、南亞、阿拉伯國家、中亞、中東歐5個區域共建技術轉移平臺,推動與菲律賓、印尼等8個國家共建科技園區。中非合作論壇北京峰會取得圓滿成功和豐碩成果。數字絲綢之路建設穩步推進,已與16個國家簽署合作諒解備忘錄,“絲路電商”全球布局步伐加快,與17個國家簽署合作協議。
6) China made solid progress in developing as a trader of quality.
六是貿易強國建設扎實推進。
We successfully hosted the first China International Import Expo, an event which has shown to the world China's determination to continue opening its market and promote economic globalization. We stepped up negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, signed an upgraded free trade agreement (FTA) with Singapore, and completed FTA negotiations with Mauritius. With this, China has further strengthened its bilateral and multilateral economic and trade cooperation, and signed a total of 17 FTAs with 25 countries and regions.
首屆中國國際進口博覽會成功舉辦,向全世界宣示了我國主動開放市場、推動經濟全球化的決心。區域全面經濟伙伴關系協定談判加速推進,與新加坡簽署自貿協定升級版,與毛里求斯完成自貿協定談判,累計已與25個國家和地區達成17個自貿協定,多雙邊經貿合作進一步深化。
We adopted 53 measures to deepen reform and promote innovation in pilot free trade zones, and applied 30 practices developed from trial reforms in pilot free trade zones across the country. We began work on building China (Hainan) Pilot Free Trade Zone, and carried out exploratory work on setting up free trade ports with Chinese features. We built more integrated experimental zones for cross-border e-commerce, improved retail import supervision and taxation policies on cross-border e-commerce, and expanded the scope of trials on market procurement trade. These steps have helped support the vigorous development of new forms and models of trade such as cross-border e-commerce and market procurement trade. We lowered China's overall tariff level from 9.8% to 7.5% and worked to balance China's foreign trade by actively expanding imports. The diversity of China's market grew continuously. The total value of imported and exported goods for the year stood at 30.51 trillion yuan, an increase of 9.7%.
出臺53項措施支持自貿試驗區深化改革創新,在全國范圍內復制推廣30項自貿試驗區改革試點經驗。海南全島自貿試驗區啟動建設,探索建設中國特色自由貿易港。新設一批跨境電子商務綜合試驗區,完善跨境電商零售進口監管和稅收政策,擴大市場采購貿易試點范圍,跨境電子商務、市場采購貿易等新業態新模式蓬勃發展。關稅總水平由9.8%下調至7.5%,積極擴大進口促進對外貿易平衡發展。多元化市場不斷拓展,全年貨物貿易進出口總額達30.51萬億元,增長9.7%。
7) The foreign investment environment was continuously improved.
七是利用外資環境不斷優化。
Restrictions on market access were relaxed across the board. Two editions of the 2018 negative list for foreign investment were published, one for the whole country and the other for pilot free trade zones. The number of special administrative measures applying in each case has been reduced to 48 and 45 respectively. Steady progress was made in opening up the financial sector. We instituted a nationwide policy of allowing foreign-invested enterprises to complete business filing procedures and business registration in one go. We took active steps to promote equal treatment of domestic and foreign enterprises in terms of industrial policy, science and technology policy, government procurement, license applications, and standards-setting. Reform and innovation-driven development in development zones were stepped up, and the business environment for foreign investors continued to improve. China attracted around US$ 135 billion in foreign direct investment over the year, an increase of 3%.
全面放寬市場準入,2018年版全國和自貿試驗區兩個外資準入負面清單發布,特別管理措施分別壓減至48條、45條,金融領域對外開放穩步推進。在全國推行外資企業設立商務備案與工商登記“一口辦理”,積極推進在產業政策、科技政策、政府采購、資質許可、標準制定等方面平等對待內外資企業,開發區改革和創新發展不斷深化,外商投資環境持續優化。全年外商直接投資達1350億美元,增長3%。
8) Development of outward investment was steady and orderly.
八是對外投資平穩有序發展。
The Management Provisions for Outward Investment by Enterprises and the Interim Measures for Reporting on the Registration (Approval) of Outward Investment were put into force. We enhanced unified supervision over outward investment at all stages and further improved the sectorial composition of outward investments, with the bulk flowing into leasing, business services, and manufacturing. To enhance the awareness of enterprises about compliance, we published the Guide on Compliance Management for Enterprises' Overseas Operations. We provided guidance to see the sound development of outward investment and financing funds, thus expanding the channels through which enterprises can seek financing for their "go-global" efforts. Non-financial outward direct investment reached US$ 120.5 billion in 2018.
企業境外投資管理辦法、對外投資備案(核準)報告暫行辦法正式施行,全口徑、全過程管理不斷完善,對外投資行業結構進一步優化,主要流向租賃和商務服務業、制造業等。發布企業境外經營合規管理指引,企業合規意識有所增強。引導對外投融資基金健康發展,企業“走出去”融資渠道進一步拓寬。全年非金融類境外直接投資達到1205億美元。

重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
guidance ['gaidəns]

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n. 引導,指導

 
initial [i'niʃəl]

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n. (詞)首字母
adj. 開始的,最初的,

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assessment [ə'sesmənt]

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n. 估價,評估

 
effectively [i'fektivli]

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adv. 事實上,有效地

 
compliance [kəm'plaiəns]

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n. 順從,遵從,靈活

 
enthusiasm [in'θju:ziæzəm]

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n. 熱情,熱心;熱衷的事物

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scope [skəup]

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n. 能力,范圍,眼界,機會,余地
vt. 仔

 
monetary ['mʌnə.teri]

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adj. 貨幣的,金融的

 
rural ['ru:rəl]

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adj. 農村的

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interim ['intərim]

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adj. 中間的,暫時的,臨時的
n. 中間時

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