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關于18年國民經濟和社會發展計劃執行情況與19年國民經濟和社會發展計劃草案的報告(5)(中英對照)

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Overall, the main targets and tasks in economic and social development for 2018 were well accomplished. We got off to a good start in the critical battles against potential risk, poverty, and pollution, continued driving forward supply-side structural reform, and elevated the intensity of reform and opening-up. Living standards continued rising; economic development was kept on a stable, sound track; overall social stability was maintained, and we took fresh strides toward completing the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

總的來看,2018年經濟社會發展主要目標任務較好完成,三大攻堅戰開局良好,供給側結構性改革深入推進,改革開放力度加大,人民生活持續改善,保持了經濟平穩健康發展和社會大局穩定,朝著實現全面建成小康社會的目標邁出了新的步伐。
Given the extreme complexity of the domestic and international contexts, these achievements were not easily attained, and it is important to fully recognize their value. They are the result of the guiding principles and strategies, well-crafted plans and arrangements, and strong leadership provided by the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core; the result of the overall vision, sound guidance, and successful practices offered by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era; and the result of the strong unity, firmness of purpose, and pragmatic and persistent efforts of the Party and the Chinese people of all ethnic groups.
在極為錯綜復雜的國內外形勢下,我國經濟社會發展取得這樣的成績來之不易,需要倍加珍惜。這是以習近平同志為核心的黨中央舉旗定向、謀篇布局、堅強領導的結果,是習近平新時代中國特色社會主義思想全面引領、科學指導、成功實踐的結果,是全黨全國各族人民團結一心、砥礪前行、真抓實干的結果。
From an economic and social development standpoint, the major indicators, such as economic growth, employment, the CPI, and the balance of payments, all remained within an appropriate range in 2018, while there were further improvements for indicators that reflect the quality of development, such as innovation capacity, resource conservation, environmental protection, and social security.
從2018年經濟社會發展情況看,經濟增長、就業、價格總水平、國際收支平衡等主要指標保持在合理區間,創新驅動、資源節約、生態保護、社會保障等反映高質量發展的指標進一步改善,
Of the 19 indicators with obligatory annual targets, 18 met their targets, while there was a discrepancy between the projected target for water consumption per 10,000 yuan of GDP and the actual performance. The target for 2018 was a 5.2% decrease; however, according to preliminary statistics, the actual decrease was 5.1%, 0.1 percentage point lower than the targeted figure. The main reasons for this are as follows: Due to a drop in annual precipitation in 2018, China's total surface water resources decreased by 80 billion cubic meters, and more water was drawn from rivers used for agricultural irrigation in some drought-affected regions. As water ecosystems in northern China were replenished with water from the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, China's water consumption for ecological purposes increased significantly compared with 2017. All these factors resulted in the above 0.1-percentage-point discrepancy.
19個約束性指標中,18個指標完成全年目標,萬元國內生產總值用水量下降指標完成情況與全年目標存在差距。該指標2018年計劃目標為下降5.2%,初步統計數為下降5.1%,低于計劃目標0.1個百分點。主要原因是,2018年全國降水量下降使得地表水資源總量減少約800億立方米,部分地區受干旱影響,農業從河流抽取的灌溉用水量增加;南水北調工程向華北地區進行生態補水,全國生態用水量較2017年有較大增加,綜合因素使得萬元國內生產總值用水量降幅低于全年目標0.1個百分點。
Out of the 46 indicators with anticipatory targets, 44 either met or surpassed targets. The actual growth of aggregate financing in the economy and per capita disposable income of urban residents fell somewhat short of the targets.
46個預期性指標中,44個指標運行情況符合或好于年度預期目標,但社會融資規模存量增長率和城鎮居民人均可支配收入指標實際運行值與預期值存在一定差距。
The growth of aggregate financing for 2018 was targeted to be roughly in line with the previous year's actual growth rate. With growth in real terms of 13.4% at the end of 2017, the 9.8% figure at the end of 2018 was short of expectations. The reasons for this are as follows: To create a favorable monetary and financial environment for supply-side structural reform, we took measures to regulate the hidden debts of local governments and to appropriately control the flow of funds to the real estate sector, to enterprises that failed environmental impact assessments, and to industries with overcapacity. We also sought to prevent funds from being diverted out of the real economy and from circulating solely within the financial sector. At the same time, we continued ensuring stable financing support for the real economy. The growth of aggregate financing for the year fell short of the anticipatory target, but it was still basically in keeping with GDP growth in nominal terms.
關于社會融資規模存量增長率,該指標2018年預期目標為“與2017年實際增速基本持平”,2017年末社會融資規模存量增長13.4%,2018年末實際增長9.8%,與預期目標存在一定差距。為了給供給側結構性改革營造適宜的貨幣金融環境,在對實體經濟提供穩定融資支持的同時,主動采取了規范地方政府隱性債務以及合理控制投向房地產、環評不達標企業、產能過剩等領域的資金和抑制資金脫實向虛、減少資金空轉等措施,社會融資規模存量增長率雖低于預期目標,但與名義GDP增長基本匹配。
Urban per capita disposable income in 2018 was targeted to stay largely in step with economic growth. GDP growth in 2018 was 6.6%, and urban per capita disposable income increased by 5.6% in real terms, lower than the anticipatory target. This can be attributed to the increasing downward pressure on the economy, more difficulties in the real economy, especially for small and micro enterprises, a decline in the profits of enterprises in some sectors, and slower growth of salary-based incomes.
關于城鎮居民人均可支配收入增速,該指標2018年預期目標為“與經濟增長基本同步”,2018年GDP增長6.6%,城鎮居民人均可支配收入實際增長5.6%,與預期目標存在一定差距。主要是受經濟下行壓力加大、實體經濟特別是小微企業困難增多、部分行業企業利潤有所下滑等影響,工資性收入等增長放緩,使得全國城鎮居民人均可支配收入增速低于預期目標。
Recognizing our achievements, we are also keenly aware that although the performance of the economy is stable and improving, this stability is punctuated by changes, some of which give cause for concern.
同時,我們也清醒認識到,經濟運行總體平穩、穩中有進,但穩中有變、變中有憂。
From an international standpoint, we are facing major changes that are deepening and evolving at a faster pace, and the sources of disruption and risk are increasing. These factors make for a complicated and grave external environment for China. Continued recovery of the global economy can be expected. But protectionism and unilateralism are intensifying, the spillover effects of monetary policy adjustments by major developed economies are becoming more evident, and some emerging economies are facing greater risks. The prices of major commodities are fluctuating sharply, geopolitical risks are building, and world economic and trade growth are slackening.
從國際形勢看,世界大變局加速深刻演變,全球動蕩源和風險點增多,我國外部環境復雜嚴峻。世界經濟雖有望延續復蘇態勢,但保護主義、單邊主義加劇,主要發達經濟體貨幣政策調整的外溢效應持續顯現,部分新興經濟體面臨的風險增多,國際大宗商品價格波動加劇,地緣政治風險累積發酵,全球經濟貿易增速趨緩。
Domestically, there are also unfavorable factors. First, China's economy still faces downward pressure. Slowing domestic demand growth is making it harder to sustain steady investment growth in the three major areas of infrastructure, manufacturing, and real estate development. We also face challenges in ensuring steady growth in consumer spending due to the many difficulties in increasing personal income, and softer growth in traditional forms of consumption like purchases of automobiles.
從國內形勢看,一是經濟面臨下行壓力。內需增長放緩,基礎設施、制造業、房地產開發等領域投資保持平穩增長的難度加大。受居民增收困難較多、汽車等傳統消費放緩等因素影響,消費穩定增長面臨挑戰。
Second, the foundation of agriculture and rural infrastructure remain weak. The level of agricultural technologies needs to be improved, basic public services and infrastructure construction lag behind in rural areas, and broader channels need to be developed for rural residents to increase their incomes.
二是農業農村基礎仍然薄弱。農業科技水平仍待提升,農村基本公共服務供給和基礎設施建設仍然滯后,農民增收渠道有待拓寬。
Third, the real economy faces mounting difficulties. Private companies are still finding it both tough and expensive to access financing, particularly small and micro companies. There is also some reluctance to lend to private companies and there are cases of loans being withheld, withdrawn, or cancelled. Enterprise profits are being squeezed by the rising costs of energy, raw materials, labor, and land use. The business environment requires further improvement. Flaws still exist in the market mechanisms for ensuring fair competition, more protection is needed for property and intellectual property rights, and there is still work to be done in building a new type of cordial and clean relationship between government and business.
三是實體經濟面臨困難增多。民營企業特別是小微企業融資難融資貴問題尚未有效解決,存在對民營企業惜貸壓貸甚至直接抽貸斷貸的現象,能源、原材料、人工、用地等成本較高,企業盈利空間受到擠壓。營商環境有待進一步優化,公平競爭的市場機制尚不完善,產權和知識產權保護仍不充分,親清新型政商關系仍不健全。
Fourth, points of weakness affecting high-quality development need to be addressed. We produce a low number of major original scientific and technological outputs, rely too much on others for key and core technologies in certain fields, and perform poorly in putting scientific and technological achievements into practical application. Our industrial structure needs further improvement, and stronger growth drivers need to be fostered. In certain localities, energy and resource constraints are tightening and ecological and environmental problems are still grave.
四是高質量發展的短板制約仍待突破。重大原創性科技成果不多,一些關鍵核心技術受制于人,科技成果轉化效率不高。產業結構還需進一步優化,發展新動能仍然不足。部分地區能源資源約束趨緊,生態環境問題依然突出。
Fifth, regional disparities continue to grow. Some localities in the central and western regions face grave difficulties in making structural adjustments, while other areas do not hold enough appeal to keep factors of production, leading to a serious outflow of talent and other high-quality factors. These issues have the potential to exacerbate the development problems of these areas.
五是區域分化態勢仍在持續。中西部一些地區結構調整難度較大,一些地區要素吸引力較弱,人才等優質要素資源外流比較嚴重,發展困難可能會增加。
Sixth, potential risks in key areas are grave. External uncertainties have the potential to intensify the inflow of risks into China through trade, cross-border capital flows, and commodity markets. Meanwhile, risks at home in the stock, bond, and foreign exchange markets, in internet finance, and in real estate cannot be overlooked.
六是重點領域風險壓力較大。外部環境不確定性可能通過貿易、跨境資本流動、大宗商品市場等渠道,加大我國輸入性風險,國內股市、債市、匯市、互聯網金融和房地產的風險隱患不容忽視。
Seventh, there are many problems and challenges affecting the people's wellbeing. Structural employment problems have emerged in some provinces, and the factors hindering personal income growth are increasing. There is insufficient supply in education, healthcare, elderly, and other public services, and the problem of population aging is becoming more serious.
七是社會民生領域還存在不少問題挑戰。部分省份就業結構性矛盾顯現,居民持續增收制約因素增多,教育、醫療、養老等公共服務供給不足,人口老齡化程度不斷加深。
Shortcomings can also be identified in our own work. Some of our policies are not as forward-looking, targeted, or effective as they need to be, and they fail to fully take into account the adjustments they impose on enterprises. Coordination between some government departments needs to be strengthened to ensure effective implementation of reform measures and policies and to see that special plans and projects are launched promptly. And some localities tend to implement policies in an oversimplified or one-size-fits-all fashion.
同時,我們在工作中還存在一些不足,有的政策制定的前瞻性、針對性、有效性還不夠,沒有充分考慮企業的適應程度問題;有的政策部門間統籌協調有待加強,有的改革舉措和政策落實效果不彰,有的專項規劃和項目建設需要及時啟動;有的地方在政策執行過程中存在簡單化、“一刀切”的問題。
These are issues that we must take very seriously. In responding to them, we will raise our awareness of potential dangers, remain mindful of worst-case scenarios, focus on prominent problems, and take targeted measures that deliver solutions and effectively prevent risks from coalescing into chain reactions and causing ripple effects. We will respond to the change in the principal contradiction in Chinese society and take full advantage of the important period of strategic opportunity for China's development. We will maintain strategic focus, firm up our confidence of success, and turn challenges into opportunities and pressure into motivation, in order to spur high-quality economic development.
對上述問題,我們將高度重視,既要增強憂患意識、堅持底線思維,抓住主要矛盾,有針對性地加以解決,有效防范各類風險連鎖聯動、疊加傳導;又要緊扣社會主要矛盾的變化,全面用好我國發展的重要戰略機遇期,保持戰略定力、堅定必勝信心,化挑戰為機遇、變壓力為動力,加快推動經濟高質量發展。

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